C language tutorial: Chapter 1 (Getting Started With C) – Short Notes

History Of C:-

C language is general purpose and organized language for programming which was developed by Dennis Ritchie at AT&T’s Bell Laboratories in 1972. C language is also called Procedure Oriented Programming Language. It is a well suited language for business and scientific applications. C language has various features like Control Structures, loop statements, arrays, classes, pointers, macros.

Features of C programming language were derived from a previous language known as BPLC (Basic Combined Programming Language). The invention of C language was for the implementation of the UNIX operating system.

Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan published the first edition of C programming language in 1978.

Features of C Programming Language:-

  1. Portable
  2. Reliable
  3. Flexible
  4. Interactive
  5. Effective
  6. Efficient
  7. Modular
  8. Strongly Types Language

Uses of C Programming Language:-

  1. Developments of system applications. E.g. Windows OS, UNIX and LINUX.
  2. Graphics
  3. Database systems
  4. Word Processing
  5. Compiler
  6. Assembler
  7. Spreadsheets
  8. OS development
  9. Interpreters
  10. Network Drives

What Is A programming Language?

A programming language is a set of terminology and syntactic rules for instructing a computer to perform a specific task. Programming language is a formal language which designed to provide instructions to the computer.

There are three levels of programming language:-

  1. High Level Language: – High Level Language provide everything that a programmer needs to create a program. E.g. JAVA, Python
  2. Middle Level Language: – Middle Level Language every structural unit required to build a program but does not provide all those features which a High Level Language can provide. E.g. C, C++.
  3. Low Level Language: Low Level Language provide only the access to the basic instruction set of the machine. E.g. Assembly Language, Machine Language

Programming Language Translator

A Programming Language Translator is a type of computer program that translates a program written in one programming language to a functionally similar program in a different computer language, without losing any functionality or logical structure of the original code.

Type of Translators:-
1. Interpreter:-

The interpreter is a computer program which reads the source code of another computer program and executes that program. The program is interpreted line by line, that is why is slow process of running a program that has been compiled. Although it is easier for the learners because the program can be stopped, modified and re-run without time-consuming compiles.

The interpreter either deconstruct the source code and perform its behavior or translated the source code into some efficient intermediate and immediately executes the code or plainly execute stored precompiled code made by the compiler which is a part of the interpreter system.

2. Compiler:-

A compiler is computer program which convert human readable source code into machine understandable code. Compiler is a software which compiles the program code into an executable program.

The process of converting source code to machine understandable code is known as compilation. The process of compiler is opposite to the process of interpreter. The compiler is part of the integrated development program(IDE) with most programming soft-wares.

Generations of Programming Language:-

There are 4 generations of programming languages.

  1. First Generation: – First generation language was the machine language. The computer is an electronic device which only understands on and off which is represented by 1 and o respectively. The first generation programming language depends upon 0 and 1 or binary mode that’s why it is called as Machine Language. For E.g. – Low Level Language


  1. Second Generation: – Machine language was difficult to understand and learn. To overcome that issue assembly language was introduced. A low level language was given special names to each machine instruction.


  1. Third Generation: – First and second generation languages were difficult to learn and were machine dependent. So, high level language was developed which include words and phrases of English.


  1. Fourth Generation: – Fourth generation language was a high level language. Fourth generation language was non procedural language which increased the speed of program development and minimized the efforts to obtain the information.

Our other chapters link is given below:-

Chapter 2 (Structure of C)





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